Thursday, May 28, 2015

Crazy Worms: Fish Bait And Forest Pest

Crazy WormRaise your hand if you’re tired of hearing about new invasive species. Yeah – right there with you. Aside from the fact that there’s too much bad news around as it is, we’re still working on a solution for those good old-fashioned pests that rival the common cold in terms of eluding conquest. Japanese beetles, European chafers, buckthorn, wild parsnip, Japanese knotweed – enough already.

We don’t need a new invasive species every year, but try convincing them, right? I half-expect to get a bulletin one of these days on some tropical soil-shark that stowed away in a shipload of potting mix. Probably it’ll feed on moles and woodchucks, but will also burst up out of lawns to swallow small pets, and gardeners might lose a finger while weeding. That would sure put lily-leaf beetles in perspective, wouldn’t it?

So I’d be a lot more hesitant to tell you about a new and significant threat to forests, landscapes and gardens if it wasn’t for the fact that you can make a real difference in preventing its spread.

The new pest is Amynthas agrestis, a super-size (eight-inch long) earthworm known as the Asian jumping worm, Alabama (or Georgia) jumper, snake worm or crazy worm. It’s sold as bait, and unfortunately is also hawked as a substitute for the harmless red wiggler used in worm compost bins. Its name comes from the fact that it moves rapidly on top of the soil, resembling a snake more than a worm. Lively and strong, it can flip out of your hand. Assuming you want to touch it.

Other than its impressive squirm factor (in every sense), what’s the problem with Amynthas agrestis – worms are good for the soil, aren’t they? Not so, my friend; crazy worms are an exception. These are not your grandparents’ worms. OK, that didn’t come out quite right. Let me rephrase it.

Here in the Northeast where glaciers scrubbed our bedrock bare a few years back we have no native earthworms. There’s debate, especially in the forestry world, over just how much of a mixed blessing our European earthworm species are, but I won’t get into that.

A native of Japan and Korea, Amynthas is a very different animal. Their reproduction, for example. Other earthworms are hermaphroditic, that is, they possess both male and female organs, but they still need to go out on a date with another of the same kind. Crazy worms, however, are parthenogenic, meaning they’re all females who spew out cocoons teeming with baby female worms by the hundreds without needing to mate. Ever. All it takes is one to start an infestation.

They also mature twice as fast as European earthworms, completing two generations per season instead of just one. And their population density gets higher than other worms. And remember they’re big.

That adds up to an unprecedented worm biomass that can basically consume all soil organic matter. This includes your lawn and the roots of annuals, perennials and shrubs. In the woods, crazy worms destroy native wildflowers, wiping out trillium, bloodroot, Jack-in-the-pulpit, ladyslipper and other understory plants. Ground-nesting songbirds like the oven bird and hermit thrush disappear as plant cover vanishes.

When Amynthas worms vacuum organics from soil, it becomes clumpy and granular and prone to compaction and erosion. Forest soils actually subside, exposing tree roots. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources invasive species specialist Bernie Williams stated bluntly “Their introduction into our state poses a huge threat to the future of our forests.”

Amynthas agrestis can be distinguished from other worms by the band near their middle called a clitellum. In most worms it’s thicker than the rest of their body. In crazy worms it is flush with the body, and is milky gray to white in contrast to their dark gray color.

Crazy worms are transplants, and that’s how they often spread. Whether in a potted plant from a garden center or a gift from a South Carolina relative, these monsters hitchhike long distances with transplants. They also get moved from infested areas, mostly in southern states, in shipments of mulch.

There are two ways of telling if your potted plant harbors dangerous fugitives. One is to turn it upside-down and gently remove the root ball. If crazy worms are present, a chunk of the roots, as well as some potting soil, may be missing. The thing is, there may only be a few young worms present, so damage might not be evident.

A better solution is a mustard solution. Mix a gallon of water with one-third cup of ground yellow mustard seed, and pour this slowly into the soil. It won’t hurt the plant, but worms (even “good” ones) will come to the surface and you can check for miscreants.

As of September 2014, it is illegal to possess Amynthas worms in NY State (and most other states), but they are still sold as fishing bait because their acrobatics make them attractive to fish. To be safe, anglers should securely cover bait containers, and destroy all unused live bait by placing it on concrete and crushing it. If you have a household worm bin, only use European red wigglers, Eisenia fetida, which won’t survive outdoors over the winter.

With a presence in northern states like Wisconsin and Minnesota, Amynthas agrestis is hardy to USDA Zone 4 and possibly colder. Right now there are at least five known crazy worm infestations in Warren County, NY and it’s likely there are plenty more in northern NY State.

If you suspect you may have found crazy worms, please call your local New York State Department of Environmental Conservation office.

If you think it’s an invasive soil shark, though, I don’t want to know about it.


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Paul Hetzler has been an ISA Certified Arborist since 1996. His work has appeared in the medical journal The Lancet, as well as Highlights for Children Magazine.You can read more of his work at or by picking up a copy of his book Shady Characters: Plant Vampires, Caterpillar Soup, Leprechaun Trees and Other Hilarities of the Natural World

3 Responses

  1. Bruce says:


    You mentioned the red wigglers. As a kid in upstate NY in the 50’s and 60’s, I would go out on warm, moist summer nights and pick up nightcrawlers so I could fish the next day. Nightcrawlers are distinctly different from what I think of as red wigglers, which lived in the manure pile. Where do nightcrawlers fit into the picture?

  2. Marco says:

    Yeah, there are a lot of worms. Here are the two most common here in NYS.
    These basically are not real bad for the environment, though both can be considered invasive species. Both are sold as trout worms or red wigglers. As a common name, they can do that. I think about 1/3 to maybe a half of the worms are actually transplants from elsewhere. I think there are about 160-170 species known in North America.

    What Paul is referring to is neither one of those. It is not too good. Unfortunately, there is no good way to clean it out of areas where it is known to exist. Another methode for introduction is sod transplants used around commercial buildings. Back when I worked on such things, I noted hundreds of odd worms, now identified as the Amynthas agrestis species I believe, on sidewalks and walkways around those buildings after a particularly heavy rainstorm.

  3. Charlie S says:

    “It’s sold as bait, and unfortunately is also hawked as a substitute for the harmless red wiggler used in worm compost bins.”

    Foresight is lacking in the american mind! Is why the above and so many other problems will continually persist. Is why the american chestnut is history, is why the DEC fruitlessly spends millions dredging the Hudson River for General Electric’s PCB’s, is why we almost lost the bald eagle, is why parking lots are more important than trees, is why Isis has grown to be the horrible menace it is on that side of the world whose people and history we care nothing about………….

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