Saturday, February 24, 2018

Weather Extremes And Maple Syrup Production

Sugarhouse at Brandy Brook Maple Farm in EllenburgNorthern New Yorkers are definitely not strangers to cold winter weather. But most of us would rather have not had to deal with the brutally relentless cold that gripped much of the nation during December and January.

According to data from the Southeast Regional Climate Center, cities including Buffalo, New York; Worcester, Massachusetts; and Bangor, Maine all experienced their coldest 2-week-stretch of weather ever recorded last Dec. 23 – Jan. 5. The week between Christmas and New Year’s was the coldest on record in Buffalo’s history. And, on Dec. 28, 30 record low temperatures were set across the country; the lowest of which was recorded in Watertown, NY; -32°F. Eighteen east coast cities saw record lows on January 2, including Morrisville, Vermont; -29°F. Their previous low for that date was -14°F. And let’s not forget he first major storm of 2018; the infamous ‘bomb cyclone’ or bombogenesis.

Yet as I start to write this, it’s raining and it’s 60°F outside. We’re experiencing record, or at least near-record high temperatures, across the region. And rain, not snow, is in the longer-range forecast, with several days of above freezing daytime temperatures and below freezing nights predicted.

It’s a welcome break. But what does this early stretch of unseasonably warm weather mean for the maple syrup industry? After all, sugaring is weather-related. A successful season is, to a great extent, dependent upon the freezing nights and daytime thaws that cause sap to run. Many producers will tell you that optimum sap production occurs when nighttime temperatures fall into the 20s and daytime temperatures range in the 40s, preferably with sunny skies; conditions associated with the winter season gradually transitioning to spring.

Area maple syrup producers have traditionally tapped their trees in late February and / or early March, in anticipation of four to six weeks of sap flow in March and April. But in recent years, a pattern of earlier, often substantial, mid-winter sap runs has become the norm. And, because of this, several producers are putting at least some of their taps in early. This year, as in recent years, producers across the region have already had sap running. Many smaller operations and those at higher elevations report that they’ve been collecting sap, but haven’t yet boiled, while some of the larger operations, and even some of the smaller maple farms in or near the Champlain and St. Lawrence Valleys, are already making syrup.

Researchers with the Cornell Sugar Maple Program and the University of Vermont (UVM) Proctor Maple Research Center, and elsewhere, have been looking closely at changes in the onset and duration of the maple sugaring season for more than a decade. A Cornell study, funded by the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, completed in 2010, looked at the relationship between sap flow and temperature at thousands of locations from North Carolina to Quebec to Minnesota. Those investigators determined that starting dates for tapping maples in the Northeast are now about a week earlier than in 1970.

The perception among many New York and New England maple syrup producers, is that the region now receives considerably more warm weather during the tapping season than it once did. There’s also a general feeling that sap flows may not be as heavy in late winter and early spring as they once were; that they are certainly less consistent; that spring often arrives earlier; and that winters are generally less severe.

A 2007 study conducted by scientists at the UVM Proctor Center confirmed that our average maple syrup season; the traditional short season of daily freeze and thaw cycles; has gotten about three days, or 8 to 10 percent, shorter than it was in the 1940s. And more and more producers are tapping earlier than their predecessors did. Sugar makers who’ve tapped early have all had positive results.

According to the United States Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Service, American maple syrup producers set 13,341,000 taps in 2017, which produced 4,271,000 gallons of maple syrup; just a bit less than one third of a gallon per tap. The retail value of the 2017 maple syrup crop won’t be released until June. But in 2016, the U.S. maple syrup crop had a retail value of more than $147 million. Syrup produced in New York and the New England states accounted for more than 85% of that crop’s value; $126,217,000.

You can support New York State Maple Producers Association sugar makers and the maple products industry in New York State by buying maple and buying local.

Photo: Sugarhouse at Brandy Brook Maple Farm in Ellenburg.

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Richard Gast

Richard Gast is a retired Extension Program Educator and has been contracted by Cornell Cooperative Extension Franklin County to continue his informative and thought provoking articles.




6 Responses

  1. Boreas says:

    “Sugar makers who’ve tapped early have all had positive results.”

    Is there a down-side to tapping early? Do frozen lines cause much of a problem?

    • John Warren John Warren says:

      Not that I’ve ever heard. Studies show that tapping early increases the amount of sap collected. The scientific advice is tap after the first of the year. I’ve missed a number of January runs over the past few years because we didn’t have an opportunity to do that. January runs are increasingly productive as climate change takes hold.

      As far as frozen lines. Your lines should not have standing sap in them to freeze (remember there’s a natural vacuum).

    • Average Citizen says:

      At larger sugar bushes that used (or still use) buckets and required more than one day to gather them all., a sudden hard , deep freeze could ruin the buckets. That sort of scenario could more readily happen in the middle of winter.than during early March

      Mild, but freezing temperatures might create a layer of ice on the top of the sap. During a sudden, very cold period, the sap can freeze solid overnight and burst the seam of a galvanized bucket.

  2. Charlie S says:

    “According to data from the Southeast Regional Climate Center, cities including Buffalo, New York; Worcester, Massachusetts; and Bangor, Maine all experienced their coldest 2-week-stretch of weather ever recorded last Dec. 23 – Jan. 5. The week between Christmas and New Year’s was the coldest on record in Buffalo’s history. And, on Dec. 28, 30 record low temperatures were set across the country; the lowest of which was recorded in Watertown, NY; -32°F. Eighteen east coast cities saw record lows on January 2, including Morrisville, Vermont; -29°F. Their previous low for that date was -14°F. And let’s not forget he first major storm of 2018; the infamous ‘bomb cyclone’ or bombogenesis.”

    The deniers of global warming who read this will surely take it to heart……and ignore all the other data that proves we are cooking, including those giant masses of ice (aka glaciers) that are rapidly disappearing.

  3. Charlie S says:

    “more and more producers are tapping earlier than their predecessors did. Sugar makers who’ve tapped early have all had positive results.”

    Yeah but how long will this last? Nature does adapt to change due to survival instinct which is in all lifeforms, but what about when we’re up to 6 degrees above normal as an average? 10 degrees?

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