Tuesday, September 18, 2018

Fifty Shades of Nightshade: From Delicious to Deadly

Deadly Nightshade courtesy Köhler's Medicinal Plants 1887Many nightshades are safe and delicious, and go well in sandwiches and sauces. A few are deadly, dished up mainly by criminals, but most occupy a gray area between these two extremes. Worldwide, there are around 2,700 shades of nightshade, a family known to Latin geeks as Solanaceae. The family comprises tasty crops like tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant, peppers, and tomatillos. It is also composed in part by jimsonweed and other shady characters which have wrought mayhem and death, both accidental and intentional, throughout history.

Nightshades are present on every continent except Antarctica, though Australia and South America have the greatest diversity, and overall numbers, of species. Tobacco is one of the most economically important nightshades, while other family members, for example petunias and Chinese lanterns, spice up our yards. The majority of nightshades are wild species, some of which have been used as sources of medicine for millennia.

It seems that the word “sumac” is preceded by “poison” in the minds of many folks, which is sad because all of the sumac we see on roadsides and in fence rows are perfectly harmless. Poison sumac, which grows in standing water, is a glossy-stemmed shrub with drooping white berries. It can cause a poison ivy-like rash, but is an uncommon species. To an even greater extent, nearly everyone assumes the term “nightshade” always comes after the word “deadly.”

Obviously, part of the problem is one of branding. The “real” deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) is worthy of its name. A single berry can be fatal to a child, and 8-10 berries or just one leaf is enough to kill an adult. Accidental poisonings may occur because the deeply hooded purple berries taste sweet, and may be consumed by kids or adults. Native to northwest Africa, southwest Asia, and parts of Europe, the plant has also been used deliberately as a way to kill political foes and unfaithful spouses.

In at least one case, a whole garrison of soldiers was wiped out by sweet wine spiked with A. belladonna berry extract (helpful hint: do not accept drinks from enemy kings or other people you do not know well).

However, deadly nightshade prefers temperate or subtropical climates, and is not often found in far northern New England, or in Canada. What we commonly call “deadly nightshade” is the native, red-berry bittersweet nightshade (Solanum dulcamara), the seeds of which are very slightly toxic. But we do have a dangerous nightshade, jimsonweed (Datura stramonium), also known as devil’s apple or mad-apple. All parts of the plant are toxic, but especially the seeds. Native to Mexico and Central America, this coarse annual weed has very long, white, funnel-shaped flowers and bizarre-looking spiny pods, and can be found infesting pastures and barnyards throughout southern Canada.

All nightshades contain some amounts of atropine, scopolamine, and other compounds which in minute quantities have medical uses, but are extremely dangerous at larger doses. Within very narrow limits, these chemicals have also be used recreationally. Tragically, some poisonings are a result of people consuming A. belladonna, D. stramonium, and other nightshades with especially high concentrations of such chemicals in the mistaken belief they can get high. A plant in one location may be many times as toxic as the same species growing on a different site, and there is no way outside of lab analysis to tell.

In northern South America, especially Colombia, criminals use an extract from several tree-form nightshade species in the genus Brugmansia on their victims to commit rapes and robberies. Seeds from Brugmansia species have high levels of scopolamine, a sedative which causes retrograde amnesia—a person given such an extract would not recall events before or after they were poisoned—as well as delirium. (Please refer to that earlier line about not drinking with strangers…)

Potatoes which have been exposed to light will turn green, indicating that toxins like solanine have been created as a defense. The danger is small, but to be on the safe side these should be discarded. The chemicals penetrate into the flesh, and removing the green portions is not enough to eliminate the risk to infants or the elderly. Likewise, there is little danger in consuming a small amount of tomato or potato leaf, but where children are concerned, refer all questions to a poison-control center. For some individuals, eating tomatoes and other nightshades can cause or exacerbate joint pain. At this time, the exact mechanism is still not well understood.

They say you shouldn’t paint any large, diverse group with the same brush, presumably because the bristles would wear out before you could finish. So unless it hurts, enjoy your vegetable nightshades, but always steer clear of the shady ones.

Illustration of Deadly Nightshade courtesy Köhler’s Medicinal Plants 1887.

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Paul Hetzler has been an ISA Certified Arborist since 1996. His work has appeared in the medical journal The Lancet, as well as Highlights for Children Magazine.You can read more of his work at PaulHetzlerNature.org or by picking up a copy of his book Shady Characters: Plant Vampires, Caterpillar Soup, Leprechaun Trees and Other Hilarities of the Natural World

3 Responses

  1. Karen Smith says:

    Always enjoy reading your posts Paul.
    (former Paul Smith’s College Library Lady)

  2. Joe Hovel says:

    Great story as is most everything Paul writes.
    I fall into that narrow category who experience joint inflammation from nightshades, however I was mid 50s when this syndrome began

  3. Kathy says:

    Is the sumac used to make za’atar a nightshade?