In the first global test of the idea, scientists have found evidence that some woodpeckers can evolve to look like another species of woodpecker in the same neighborhood. The researchers say that this “plumage mimicry” isn’t a fluke – it happens among pairs of distantly related woodpeckers all over the world.
The study, published in the journal Nature Communications, was conducted by researchers at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, SUNY Buffalo State, the University of British Columbia, and Manchester University.
Study authors combined data on feather color, DNA sequences, eBird reports, and NASA satellite measures of vegetation for all 230 of the world’s woodpecker species. It became clear, Miller says, that there have been repeated cases of distantly related woodpeckers coming to closely resemble each other when they live in the same region of the globe.
“In North America, the classic lookalike pairing is Downy Woodpecker and the larger Hairy Woodpecker, lead author Eliot Miller of the Cornell Lab said in an announcement of the study sent to the press. “Our study suggests that these two species have evolved to look nearly identical above and beyond what would be expected based on their environment. Yet, these two species evolved millions of years apart.”
Other North American lookalikes are Black-backed and Three-toed Woodpeckers. In Europe, Greater and Lesser Spotted Woodpeckers bear a striking resemblance, as do the Lineated, Robust, and Helmeted Woodpeckers of South America.
Though not part of the study, Miller’s take on the reason for woodpecker dopplegangers is that downies that look like the larger, more aggressive Hairy Woodpeckers might make other birds, such as nuthatches and titmice, think twice about competing with the downy for food. Some evidence supporting this idea has been found in observational studies but field experiments would be needed to more conclusively test this hypothesis.
The data turned up some other interesting connections between woodpecker appearance and habitat. Many of the woodpeckers the scientists looked at in tropical regions have darker feathers. This adds to a growing body of evidence in support of “Gloger’s Rule,” which states that organisms tend to be darker colored in more humid areas. They also found that:
red-headed woodpecker species tend to live in forested habitats
black, white, and gray colored species tend to live in open habitats
woodpeckers with red on their bellies are most often found in forests
woodpeckers with large patches of color on their bellies were most often found in open habitats
Additional studies would be needed to try to ferret out why some plumage patterns seem to be linked to habitat types.
Image of look-alike Woodpeckers provided.